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Christian Aid expectations for COP25

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Christian Aid's key asks for the COP25 climate conference in Madrid, Spain, December 2019.

The past 18 months have seen a flurry of new scientific information on the state of the climate. Severe climate impacts are already being experienced, particularly by the poorest and most vulnerable. Communities and ecosystems are already suffering devastation even at the current 1ºC of warming. The fires in the Amazon, Congo and California, the South Asian floods, and other extreme weather events, like cyclones Idai and Fani, point to a climate system already in crisis. The world is in a state of climate emergency.

The climate emergency is real and efforts to take action now must be a priority. We call on governments to make a step change in their climate ambition and in the support given to help developing countries achieve it.

Key asks


  • All countries to recognise the scale of the climate challenge and the need for a fair global effort to achieve the Paris 1.5ºC goal.
  • The Conference of Parties (COP) to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change should deliver a mandate for all countries to enhance the mitigation part of their Nationally-determined contributions (NDCs) in line with the 1.5ºC goal.
  • The common time frame should be in five-year cycles.
  • Long-term strategies should include landscape analyses to plan for nature-based solutions, to increase resilience, and to store and sequester carbon.


  • Adequate climate finance is a prerequisite to greater ambition in poor countries. Developed countries need to step up in providing adequate public finance to both help build resilience, but also to allow clean development and fulfillment – and exceedance - of the conditional parts of the NDCs.

Loss and damage

  • The Warsaw International Mechanism on Loss and Damage (WIM) should put greater focus on averting loss and damage than on post-event addressing of it.
  • New, additional and adequate sources of climate finance are needed to enhance action.
  • The potential of nature-based solutions for resilience should be given greater consideration and implementation priority.


  • Developing countries should be supported to complete and implement country-driven, gender-responsive, participatory and transparent adaptation plans.
  • The overall financial flows, as well as the proportion of finance for adaptation need to be increased to allow vulnerable people, communities and ecosystems to adapt to the changing climate.

Article 6

  • Rather than rely on ‘flexibility’ mechanisms, countries should instead focus on making transformational changes to their economies.
  • Kyoto credits should play no role in any Paris mechanisms.
  • Article 6 provisions should be adopted as a package.
  • The Article 6 mechanisms should explicitly recognise the non-fungibility of fossil and biological carbon and prevent trade between them.
  • Strong social and environmental safeguards are essential to be agreed before use of flexibility mechanisms.

Nature-based solutions

  • COP should recognise the potential co-benefits of nature-based solutions, as detailed in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) reports, and agree means to promote their implementation
  • Nature-based solutions for mitigation should not be seen as an alternative to ending the use of fossil fuels. It should be seen as an additional and precautionary approach, with other co-benefits, including for resilience.
  • Appropriate links with the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and UN Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD)’s provisions should be made, and coherent implementation encouraged.

Gender and Climate

  • The revision must ensure that gender balance approaches are adopted under all the bodies of the convention.

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Resource author(s)

Published on 22 November 2019

Resource language
  • Global
Themes – Areas of work
  • Climate change
  • Resilience and climate