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Christian Aid Ireland’s adaptive programme management

Governance, gender, peace building and human rights Tackling the problems of poverty, vulnerability and exclusion that persist in parts of the world that continue to be affected by violence or political insecurity is difficult for several reasons. For one, because of the complexity of the prevailing social, economic and political systems, solutions to chronic problems are far from obvious. One response to this aspect of the challenge is adaptive programme design and management. This paper, 'Learning to make a difference: Christian Aid Ireland’s adaptive programme management in governance, gender, peace building and human rights', is the product of a multi-year collaboration between ODI and the core team of Christian Aid Ireland to assess the relevance of adaptive or trial-and-error approaches to the field of governance, peace building and human rights. It explains the basis on which Christian Aid Ireland’s current five-year programme funded by Irish Aid has become committed to an adaptive approach. It then describes and seeks to draw lessons from the programme’s first year of experience, considering the possible implications for implementation over the coming years.

LPRR: Humanitarian response strand learning paper

The Linking Preparedness, Response and Resilience, a DEPP funded, multi-agency project, supported seven local NGOs in Kenya and Myanmar to develop and pilot operational methodologies for supporting integrated community-led responses to humanitarian crises. The project was funded by the START network through UK aid and was led by Christian Aid. The approaches tested by the project were based on the research carried out by Kings College London (KCL), on the on-going action-research of carried out by Local to Global Protection (L2GP) and on the ideas, capacities and contexts of the LNGOs themselves. The pilots test the application of the recommendations made by communities as captured by the KCL research of how to improve humanitarian programming. This learning paper summarises the key findings to date from seven of these pilots in 3 local organisations from Marsabit County of Northern Kenya, two from NW Myanmar (Rakhine State) and two from SE Myanmar (Kayah and Kayin States). Given the small budgets for the pilots and the very short timeframes for their completion, they are the first step for the seven LNGOs to test and develop some of the components of the emerging ‘practice’ for facilitating locally-led emergency programming.

LPRR final evaluation report

The Linking Preparedness, Response and Resilience (LPRR) project, which is part of the DFID funded Disasters Emergencies Preparedness Programme (DEPP), was carried out from 2015 to the end of March 2018. The project was delivered by a consortium led by Christian Aid, which included Action Aid, Concern, Help Age, King’s College London, Muslim Aid, Oxfam, Safer World, and World Vision. The LPRR project brings together the expertise of response and resilience professionals (and frameworks) in order to support communities affected by emergencies and at the risk of violence. The consortium was present through a research component in eight countries, namely Bangladesh, Democratic Republic of Congo, Philippines, Colombia, Indonesia, with pilot projects in Kenya, Pakistan and Myanmar. The project was delivered through three distinct strands: conflict prevention, humanitarian response, and learning.

LPRR knowledge co-development paper

Co-production is a process through which partners draw upon their own learning to feed into a collective knowledge creation process. It fits well within international development, humanitarian and resilience-building processes, where the multi-partner nature of many current projects ensures there is a multiplicity of perspectives that can be drawn upon. It can also be democratic – where all forms of knowledge are valued – and so create ownership; work to find a balance between theory and practice and strengthen (and build) technical capacity and process Co-production was explicitly employed in the Linking Preparedness, Resilience and Response (LPRR) project, part of the DFID funded Disasters and Emergencies, Preparedness Programme (DEPP). It explored how humanitarian response can be strengthened to enable (and not undermine) long term community resilience building. Christian Aid (CA) led the project with seven consortium partners – World Vision, Action Aid, Help Age International, Concern, Oxfam and Muslim Aid. The project collaborated with King's College London (KCL) who led the research function. The purpose of this practice paper is three-fold: To explore the learning environment amongst consortium partners i.e. group learning and the tools and processes employed to facilitate this To detail the challenges and enablers of an implementing NGOs, Christian Aid and other consortium partners, co-producing knowledge with an academic institute, KCL; and To assess how the project helped to build capacity amongst relevant agencies – including in-country partners.

LPRR: Empowering communities to lead humanitarian response

The DFID DEPP funded LPRR consortium is led by Christian Aid and includes Action Aid, Concern Worldwide, Help Age, King’s College London, Muslim Aid, Oxfam, Saferworld and World Vision. It aims to increase preparedness and resilience capacity in conflict and response settings. As part of the project, King’s College London University designed and implemented a study in Bangladesh, Colombia, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Indonesia, Kenya, Pakistan and the Philippines. It was one of the rare approaches which specifically asked 327 crises survivors and first responders from past humanitarian emergencies to draw upon their own experience and expertise to guide improved humanitarian response programming for long term resilience.

Partnership for Change: Christian Aid in Kenya

Christian Aid has been working in Kenya since 1997, in partnership with local civil society agencies, public authorities, private sector actors, churches and other religious organisations. We are working to build community capacities and create enabling environments in which men, women and children can thrive and break out of chronic cycles of poverty.

Conflict prevention strand of the LPRR

The Linking Preparedness, Resilience and Response project (LPRR) was a consortium initiative, running from 2015 to 2018, funded by DFID through Disasters and Emergencies Preparedness Programme (DEPP). It was implemented by the START Network, under the management of Christian Aid. The project developed an ‘Integrated Conflict Prevention and Resilience’ (ICPR), methodology drawing on best practice of conflict sensitivity and resilience strengthening. The methodology was tested in ten communities across two contexts; Northern Kenya and North-West Pakistan. The aim of this paper is to describe the process of implementing these pilots and to gather learning about what worked well and what did not, in order to inform the design and implementation of future humanitarian and development initiatives in conflict-affected contexts.

Out of the Frying Pan, Into the Fire (Part 2)

A debilitating drought may bring riots and social unrest in one country, but in a neighbouring country, the same problem may be dealt with by citizen mobilisation towards collective action solutions. To a large extent, governance capacity and community resilience explains the nature and structure of the response. In this report, three case studies – from Angola, Mali, and Honduras – of actual responses to climate change and conflict are presented.

Appendices - Marsabit County Resilience Study

Appendices to the Marsabit County Resilience Study. A fieldwork study carried out over two weeks in May 2017 to assess the value of investing in resilience work within pastoralist communities. 

The Climate Challenge

Case study on community adaptation and women's empowerment in Bangladesh.

LPRR: briefing note

The Linking Preparedness Response and Resilience (LPRR) project is part of a growing portfolio of Start Network Engage projects funded by UK aid from the UK Government, through its Disaster and Emergencies Preparedness Programme (DEPP). LPRR, started in January 2015, will run until the end of December 2017. It seeks to increase preparedness and resilience capacity in conflict and response settings by improving resilience-building strategies in multi-hazard and multi-risk environments. Led by Christian Aid, LPRR joins together nine agencies (Action Aid, Christian Aid, Concern, Help Age, King’s College London, Muslim Aid, Oxfam, Saferworld and World Vision) to promote resilience in humanitarian responses to disasters and conflict contexts.

Picture Power: Capturing stories of change through photography in Kenya

This report features incredible stories of changes and challenges that the communities captured in photos that they took in their communities as well as data gathered as part of the wider outcome assessment activities.

Kenya: guide to contribution analysis methods

Contribution analysis was used within a series of theory-based evaluations of Christian Aid’s governance portfolio in 2015, specifically in the Kenya country study.  The approach was used to try to understand and evidence to what extent Christian Aid’s and its partners’ governance approaches has contributed to better health outcomes.  This methodological guide was one of the deliverables of the evaluation and is aimed at Christian Aid staff who are interested in understanding alternative approaches to evaluating governance and other hard-to-measure areas of work.  The guide introduces the theory behind contribution analysis and the practical steps taken in applying the approach during the evaluation in Kenya.  Related resources Kenya: a closer look at older age and disability in health programming

Kenya: health governance (INTRAC) - a theory-based approach

Kenya is one of five country studies carried out as part of an organisational assessment of Christian Aid’s work on accountable governance.

LPRR: action learning research

In order for productive learning to occur within the context of this project, monitoring practices must be robust and go beyond collecting data against indicators. This is especially important within a resilience context, as the pre-emptive baseline measurement that is usually used for measuring progress/success is not desirable here. Instead, an ‘outcome harvesting’ approach is more practical, as it does not measure progress towards predetermined outcomes or objectives, but rather collects evidence of what has been achieved, and works backward to determine whether and how the project or intervention contributed to the change. Within the LPRR project there is a need for rigorous evaluation, which balances accountability and learning. Given the ever-evolving evidence base of ‘what works under what conditions’ coupled with the need to demonstrate quality, impactful programming in both upwards and downwards accountability, these types of robust evaluations are essential. In order to ensure learning and accountability are achieved through evaluations, they must be well-planned and budgeted for. This is where the role of the learning strand comes in; by recognising that learning is essential at the outset, it enables it to be included within the design of the project.

Picture Power: Understanding impact through a community lens

Since 2011, members of Kalawani community, Makueni County in lower eastern Kenya, have been working with Christian Aid and our partner ADS Eastern on a PPA-funded Thriving Resilient Livelihoods programme. The aim of the programme is to empower communities to identify and address the risks and problems that prevent them making the most of opportunities to develop. Through the programme, the community is addressing issues of disaster linked to water shortages and drought, climate change, food shortages, lack of employment and income generating opportunities, water-related conflict, environmental degradation and a range of social issues including lack of women’s empowerment, low levels of education and high levels of poor health and disease.

Low-carbon development in South Asia: leapfrogging to a green future

The report gives examples of the potential for low-carbon energy in Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan.